Hormonal drugs for weight loss

Hormones are participants in every process in the human body. They can change the course of events by speeding up or slowing down bioreactions. Hormones alert the CNS to the state of energy balance, the nature of food, its caloric content, its volume. Leptin is one of them. Insulin, ghrelin can also be included in this group. Glucose and free fatty acids have the same qualities.

But only leptin and insulin signal to the brain about the state of fat depots. In response to the information received, the brain builds short- and long-term reactions according to the feedback principle. It’s about maintaining body weight and suppressing or intensifying appetite. You will learn about how the brain controls metabolism and hormones change its work in this article. In addition, you will learn about the main medications that take over the functions of hormones.

Contents

  1. Causes of nutritional imbalances.
  2. Hormones and food intake.
  3. An important regulator.
  4. Leptin.
  5. Drugs that regulate leptin levels.
  6. Other hormones.
  7. Hormones that affect weight.

Causes of imbalances in nutrition

There are several reasons for gaining extra pounds. The main ones are:

  • heredity;
  • unbalanced diet;
  • hypodynamia;
  • stressful situations, depression.

Genetic mutations that cause obesity are not common. However, there are more than 50 known inherited variants that do not just cause weight gain, but a disease called obesity. For example, a mutation in the leptin receptor gene. Many obese patients tend to think of hormonal imbalance as the trigger for their excess weight. So they don’t even try to combat such a problem and eat as they have been eating.

But hormones are not omnipotent and do not fail for no reason. Rash actions of the patients themselves are most likely to be to blame. However, it is a fact that hormonal imbalance, whatever it was triggered by, triggers the process of overeating.

Hormones and food intake

The eating process is controlled by a complex system. The main role is played by gastrointestinal hormones, which are scattered throughout the digestive tract as they are produced by endocrine cells in the stomach, pancreas and intestines. They process food and are the first to respond to food habits. Today there are more than 20 such incretins and bioactive substances known, but their list is constantly growing.

For example, this group should include:

  • insulin;
  • leptin;
  • cholecystokinin;
  • adiponectin;
  • neuropeptide YY;
  • obestatin;
  • ghrelin;
  • bombesin;
  • glucagon-like peptide;
  • amelin.

Their activity and balance are influenced by lifestyle, eating habits, and diseases. In general, eating behavior is one of the most important elements in the chain of gaining extra pounds. Sometimes we are addicted to food cravings like we are addicted to drugs. The pleasure of eating is remembered by the CNS, a dominant – a temporary focus of excitement in the hypothalamic center of satiety, which gradually forms an individual food stereotype. Some people like beer and some like cake.

No amount of persuasion will change this stereotype. The brain will remain deaf to such babble. External provocateurs also contribute their share. Lack of time makes you turn more and more to high-calorie products, because you have to get full quickly. There is no time to chew food. This abundant, calorie-laden food reaches the stomach, which sends a couple of signals to the brain about satiety. The first is by stretching the walls of the organ, the second by the calories.

In response, the brain produces hormones and other bio-substances, and data processing takes place. The amount and composition of food determine further metabolic processes. For example, a state of stress is eaten with sweets, which always have a high glycemic index. In response, a lot of insulin is synthesized to neutralize the glucose. Part of it is transformed into energy, another part is stored in fat depots.

Such a diet overloads the pancreas, an excess of the hormone minimizes the susceptibility of the cell receptors to it, insulin resistance develops. Without insulin, glucose does not get into the cell, an imitation of diabetes occurs: the cells have not enough sugar, they are starving, and the blood is full of it. At the same time, the brain demands more sweets. Or else: alcohol also has a high glycemic index. The pancreas gets overloaded when drinking alcohol, excess insulin provokes insulin resistance. This is how carbohydrate exchange problems begin.

The body can’t oxidize fatty foods right away either, so the fat goes to the depot. When it overflows, it starts living on its own. Such tissue becomes active and synthesizes a number of hormones, including leptin. At the same time it tries to preserve itself and repels any attempts to reduce it.

Hypothalamic centers get used to high concentration of bioactive substances and become less sensitive to them. As a result, the hunger center is inhibited insufficiently even with the intake of large amounts of food. At the same time, the new tissue affects other hormones, disrupting their work, which further increases the weight. A vicious circle is formed.

The body can’t oxidize fatty foods right away either, so the fat goes to the depot. When it overflows, it starts living on its own. Such tissue becomes active and synthesizes a number of hormones, including leptin. At the same time it tries to preserve itself and repels any attempts to reduce it.

Hypothalamic centers get used to high concentration of bioactive substances and become less sensitive to them. As a result, the hunger center is inhibited insufficiently even with the intake of large amounts of food. At the same time, the new tissue affects other hormones, disrupting their work, which further increases the weight. A vicious circle is formed.

An important regulator

The key hormone that first responds to poor nutrition is insulin. Any food with a high glycemic index activates the release of pancreatic hormone. Cell death of the organ minimizes the concentration of insulin in the blood, which means that its effect on lipase is reduced.

Fat breakdown is inhibited, and new stores are easily formed. Insulin sensitivity can be restored by diet or by the drug Metformin. Insulin resistance is positively affected by sartans: Lozartan, Valsartan, Telmisartan, for example. The latter is preferable to the others because it does not retain water, does not provoke pastosity and heart failure.

Leptin

Let’s separately focus on the fat cell hormone Leptin. It is the voice of adipose tissue and, like insulin, it controls the feeling of satiety. Once in the brain, leptin contacts hypothalamic receptors and has an anorectic effect.

Its functions:

  • blocking neuropeptide synthesis;
  • activation of the production of anorectics;
  • correction of the synthesis of sex hormones;
  • stimulation of thermogenesis;
  • inactivation of orexin;
  • prevention of lipotoxicosis.

ncrease leptin can be insulin because it is affiliated with it, dexamethasone, stress, extra pounds, testosterone. Decrease: lack of sleep, estrogens, physical exertion. The concentration of leptin in the blood is directly related to the amount of food eaten and the weight of fat in the body and is an indicator of impaired energy metabolism.

The more lipocytes, the more leptin in the blood. And this is bad. The paradox is that high content of the hormone makes hypothalamic receptors resistant to it. In other words, leptin resistance is formed, which plays an important role in obesity.

Leptin does not perform its main function – it does not regulate energy metabolism, which means it does not correct eating behavior or burn fat. The brain simply does not see leptin, there is no information about satiety, no command to produce leptin. Again a vicious circle: there is a lot of leptin in the blood, but not enough in the brain.

Rarely, there are congenital abnormalities when the brain does not “see” leptin; more often, this happens in obese people due to fat depots or systematic overeating. The concentration of leptin in blood fluctuates depending on the time of day, at night it is higher by one third.

If a person feels hunger, the fluctuations are disturbed. A 10% decrease in body weight decreases leptin by 53%, and a 10% gain increases the concentration of the hormone many times over. A day of significant overeating increases levels by 40%.

Drugs to correct leptin levels

In fact, there are only two:

  1. “ORALVISC (Leptin Manager), a dietary supplement.
  2. Leptin Recombinant.

An endocrinologist prescribes these drugs on the basis of tests and examinations. Depending on the increased or decreased level of leptin, the treatment is different. The first drug lowers the concentration of the hormone in the blood and synovium and balances the metabolism.

Take a capsule in the morning for a month. Shown when leptin resistance and high levels of leptin in the bloodstream. The second drug is a shot. It is the drug of choice for obesity of hereditary genesis. The uniqueness of the drug is that on the third day of treatment, it dramatically reduces appetite, and metabolic processes are activated. A month later, the level of thyroid hormones is restored.

In addition, Metformin, Physiotens are used in the treatment of leptin resistance. But the decision to prescribe the agents is made by the doctor.

Other hormones

Among the hormones that regulate fat metabolism and control human weight are:

  1. Adiponectin, an indicator of insulin resistance and a tendency to be overweight. Falling levels of the hormone contribute to weight gain. There are two drugs based on it: Actos and Avandia.
  2. Resistin is a trigger for the development of metabolic disorders, diabetes, and obesity Resistin is an insulin antagonist and a marker for obesity.
  3. Visfatin is a hope hormone for the safe correction of insulin and leptin resistance and thus patient weight.
  4. Ghrelin is a powerful appetite stimulant in the hypothalamus. Its decrease demonstrates a good anorectic effect, while its increase stimulates digestive enzymes. After taking ghrelin, appetite is increased by 30%. High leptin corresponds to high ghrelin.
  5. Cholecystokinin is a satiety factor and has been associated with decreased food intake. It improves sleep, accelerates fat burning, and normalizes eating behavior.
  6. Obestatin is a relative of ghrelin, but unlike it, it reduces appetite, minimizes food intake and body weight.

There must be a balance between anorexigenic and orexigenic hormones. Artificially influencing their levels is always a risk. That is why you should not rely on them, but it is better to do sports and have a balanced diet.

Hormones that affect weight

In addition to fat tissue and mucosal digestive hormones, there are a number of hormones that also affect a person’s weight. These are:

  1. Growth hormone or somatotropin (STH). It is a hormone of the pituitary gland that can influence the breakdown of fat from the depot, as well as glucose and fatty acids. Lack of biologically active substance physiologically comes with age, metabolism decreases and lipids begin to cumulate in the body. Somatoliberin increases hormone levels and somatostatin decreases hormone concentrations. Somatotorop hormone acts as an anorectic, while somatostatin and somatoliberin in minimal doses increase the desire to eat. Somatotropin injections are used for weight loss, and insulin synthesis is reduced. The level of the hormone can be increased quite simply by physical activity. Hormone therapy is not necessary in this case.
  2. Thyroid hormones or thyroidins: thyroxine, thyrocalcitonin, triiodothyronine. They activate basic metabolism and energy expenditure, and weight loss occurs on this background. However, the accompanying side effects did not allow the hormones to gain widespread popularity in weight loss therapy. Today they are used only by bodybuilders, and not without problems. The exception is the combined pathology of obesity and reduced thyroid function. In this case the correction of the condition is the prerogative of the endocrinologist.
  3. Sex hormones become resistant when insulin and leptin are high. Hormonal imbalance in women is manifested by abnormal proportions of testosterone and androstenedione, minimization of progesterone, somatotropin, and in men by testosterone. Female sex hormones include primarily estradiol. An increase in estrogen is associated with its synthesis from androgens, which provokes fat depot cells. Excess hormone affects weight and fat deposits. Leptin can normalize hormone balance, but this is hindered by leptin resistance. Minimal estradiol is also a problem: the recruitment of extra pounds, which is physiological with age. Treatment is performed by an endocrinologist, self-treatment is unacceptable. Any replacement therapy inhibits even more the synthesis of your own hormones.
  4. Progesterone, the female sex hormone, is responsible for the balance between estradiol and progestin. The former activates the minimization of extra pounds; the latter is the opposite. Progesterone inhibits metabolic processes, increasing adipose tissue and retaining fluid in the body, which causes pastose. But the main thing is that the hormone stimulates appetite, so when prescribing sex hormones as therapy, you need to measure a hundred times, and then make a decision. They are justified for menopause, for pathologies of the genital system in combination with obesity. Another hormone that helps extra pounds to accumulate is prolactin. When it increases, it causes insulin resistance, and thus affiliated with it – leptin resistance, and as well as disturbed lipid metabolism, the production of milk by the mammary glands.
  5. Testosterone is the male sex hormone, which is useful for weight loss because, by participating in metabolism, it activates energy expenditure, burns fat and increases muscle tone. If we are talking about women, the active synthesis of testosterone threatens not just weight gain, but its distribution in the male type. This hormone is used by bodybuilders, who cause hormonal shifts for the sake of a beautiful body, forgetting about the serious side effects. Weight gain provokes insulin resistance, a drop in testosterone and an increase in cortisol.

The main drugs that affect weight are Somatotropin, Pregnyl or human chorionic gonadotropin, Thyroxin, Estrogen, Testosterone. However, one must realize that replacement therapy leads to disability. One’s own hormones are suppressed or start to be thrown into the bloodstream chaotically. A persistent hormonal imbalance arises, there is no mutual influence on each other, no activation and inhibition of synthesis.

Such chaos is much more serious than the problem of extra pounds. Hormones can benefit only in one case, if the endocrine organs are affected. With successful therapy on this background, the excess weight disappears on its own.

It should be emphasized that a proper diet and dosed physical activity on the background of adequate eating behavior exclude problems with extra pounds. If all these conditions are met, weight gain indicates the occurrence of obesity problems and requires consultation with specialists.

First of all, examination for hormonal status, then, the doctor will start titrating doses until he reaches threshold values. It should be understood that this is a strictly individual process, because everyone’s physiology is different and the numbers of hormonal status are different.

At the same time it is supposed to control continuously the level of hormones in blood. Optimal is the balance of hormones in the body, not their increase or decrease. Finding the right hormone level is a difficult task for a doctor, and certainly self-treatment with hormones is simply unacceptable.

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