Obesity: causes, diagnosis, treatment

The time interval between normal weight and obesity is called pre-fatness. It is a condition that is typified by an increase in body weight of 15-20% of normal weight. The first signs of pathology are localized fat deposits, shortness of breath, hyperhidrosis, hypertension, insulin and leptin resistance. How to diagnose pre-fatness and correct it, you will learn from the article.


  1. General information.
  2. Causes.
  3. Classification and symptoms.
  4. Complications.
  5. Diagnosis.
  6. Treatment.
  7. Prognosis and prevention.

General Information

Obesity is an excessive accumulation of fatty tissue in the hypodermis and internal organs. BMI in this case varies from 25 to 30 units. The World Health Organization says that in the Russian Federation one third of the working-age population is overweight. Most often excess weight occurs between the ages of 35 and 60, mostly in women. No endemicity, seasonality or racial preferences have been identified. Overweight is a risk factor for hypertension, diabetes mellitus, ischemic heart disease, stroke. Obesity can be regarded as a separate pathological condition or be a part of a symptom complex of another pathology.


The main role in the development of obesity is played by an imbalance between the amount of calories consumed and energy expenditure. Increased caloric content of food helps fats to accumulate faster, first in the hypodermis and then visceral near the internal organs.

Other triggers also play a role in the development of the pathology:

  1. Genetic predisposition: the genes controlling overweight are not known today, but there is a direct link between obesity in parents and children.
  2. Eating behavior, which is tightly affiliated with leptin, when overeating or excessive consumption of light carbohydrates contributes to obesity. Eating, as a stressor, is an important factor in gaining extra pounds.
  3. Endocrine disruption: 5% of obesity is hormonal in nature and is affiliated with hypothyroidism, Icenko-Cushing’s syndrome, Frelich, polycystic ovarian syndrome.
  4. Medications: hormones, birth control drugs, tranquilizers, antidepressants, sugar-lowering drugs lead to weight gain due to wolf appetite, which is controlled by leptin or increased hormone synthesis.
  5. Hypo- or complete adynamy, office work, lack of walking – reasons for the development of obesity due to the minimization of energy expenditure on the background of hypercaloric food.

Classification and symptoms

Based on the localization of fat deposits, there are three types of pre-fatness and obesity:

  1. Pear-shaped or hip and gluteal, gynoid – typical for women, fat is deposited on the hips, in the gluteal area. Patients are characterized by arthritis, hernias, varicose veins.
  2. Apple or abdominal, android type – this is a thickening of the hypodermis in the abdomen, chest, arms. The development of diabetes mellitus 2, hypertension, stroke and heart attack is typical for such patients.
  3. Intermediate or mixed type is characterized by uniform accumulation of fat.

The transition from normal to obesity lasts several months, after which the condition may return to baseline or develop into grade 1 obesity. Preobesity is typified by the accumulation of extra pounds, lethargy, and apathy. Leptin and ghrelin, the hormones of fat cells, stimulate appetite and inhibit satiety. Metabolism slows down, and even the minimum of food is stored away. Obesity is accompanied by hyperhidrosis, acne, pustules on the body, diaper rash in the folds of the dermis. Later there is shortness of breath, night snoring with apnea, blood pressure rises.


Overweight not only causes weight gain, it increases the risk of coronary heart disease, joint degeneration, diabetes mellitus 2, cholecystitis, pancreatitis and cholelithiasis. Obesity reduces fertility, changes menstruation, provokes impotence. Overweight causes stress, depression, insomnia, eating disorders, reduces life expectancy by 5-10 years and doubles the risk of sudden death.


It is both easy and difficult to diagnose obesity. You need a thorough medical history, evaluation of comorbidities, lifestyle, diet, and weight changes over the last at least 5 years. BMI and waist circumference are used for this. BMI should exceed 30 units, waist circumference in men – more than 102. In women – 88 cm. If obesity is suspected, blood tests for glucose, thyrotropes, lipid spectrum are prescribed. A consultation with a cardiologist, psychologist, gynecologist or andrologist is necessary. To assess the type of obesity, the ratio of waist circumference to hip circumference is calculated. This ratio is > 0.85 in women and greater than 1 in men.


The treatment of obesity is complex: a rational diet with a minimum of calories and physical effort. To lose weight properly, you need to eat less calories than the body spends in a day. Meals are fractional, six times a day, in small portions, the last meal three hours before bedtime.

It is necessary to drink a lot of water: 40 ml per 1 kg of weight. Exclude fast food, fast carbs, canned foods, alcohol, soda. Add lean meats and fish, low-fat dairy products, fresh vegetables, fruits. Maximum calories – breakfast, minimum – dinner. Physical efforts of average intensity are obligatory: pilates, fitness, yoga, jogging, swimming, water aerobics.

Additional methods include anti-cellulite and can massage, mud and algae wraps. It is possible to reduce body weight by no more than 5 kg per month. In the presence of endocrine disorders or gynecological pathology, concomitant hormonal therapy is carried out. All patients are advised to consult a psychologist.

Prognosis and prevention

With timely and adequate comprehensive treatment of obesity, the prognosis of the disease is favorable. Weight normalization can take several years. BMI below 25 reduces the risk of hypertension, diabetes, heart attack and stroke. General health improves and joint pain is minimized. Prevention of obesity involves a combination of exercise and a rational balanced diet. Energy inputs should be greater than energy inputs into the body, only then the metabolism accelerates and the process of weight loss begins.

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