Metreleptin (metreleptin) is an innovative drug for the prevention and correction of complications caused by leptin deficiency in patients suffering from generalized lipodystrophy: congenital or acquired. It is used together with a special diet. In Russia it is not allowed for use, but from the article you can learn about the nature of its action, contraindications, which will largely explain this situation.
- What is Metreleptin.
- Generalized lipodystrophy.
- Contraindications to the use of the drug.
What is Metreleptin
A synthetic analogue of the adipose tissue hormone leptin has been named Metreleptin. It is a recombinant methionyl version of human leptin obtained with recombinant DNA. The drug was created specifically for the correction of generalized lipodystrophy and is able to increase leptin levels, which are deficient in the development of this pathology.
Metreleptin or INN by the international nonproprietary name of the drug since 2017 is included in the group of drugs for the treatment of diseases of the digestive system and metabolic disorders, where amino acids and their derivatives are located. Registration code A16AA07.
The injectable form of the drug is approved by the FDA to correct pathology in the United States under the brand name Myalept. Metreleptin is also approved in Japan. Everywhere Metreleptin is a prescription drug.
The systemic pathology, the essence of which is the loss of subcutaneous fatty tissue and interlayers of fatty tissue of internal organs, is called generalized lipodystrophy. It can be congenital or acquired and is found immediately after birth or during the first year of life.
Associated symptomatology looks like a pronounced pattern of surface veins, an abundance of curly curls on the head, a brutal appetite with increased anabolism and skeletal growth, provoking tallness, rapid growth of muscles that make the abdominal wall bulging, increased joints, especially – hands and feet, osteosclerosis, thickening of myocardium with loss of muscle contractility.
The genitals often sharply enlarged before their proper term, oligophrenia and hemiplegia are fixed. Slowly but surely, an increased concentration of lipids in the blood is formed, insulin synthesis increases, insulin-resistant diabetes mellitus develops, liver increases in size, which is explained by fatty infiltration and cirrhosis of the liver.
Acquired lipodystrophy often develops after an infection or exacerbation of some chronic disease, sometimes it is impossible to identify the trigger of subcutaneous fat loss. It is believed that the essence of the pathology is the autoimmune destruction of lipocytes and the development of anabolic syndrome, which accompanies insulin-resistant diabetes mellitus.
In generalized lipodystrophy it is very difficult to distinguish between the congenital and acquired form, except for less pronounced changes in anabolism.
Because leptin is produced by fat cells, its levels in patients with generalized loss of subcutaneous fat are significantly reduced. The hormone controls a person’s eating behavior, food intake, plus the synthesis of other hormones, specifically insulin. Administration of a synthetic recombinant analogue of leptin, Metreleptin, as a means of replacement therapy, gives an opportunity to minimize the risk of complications of a serious disease.
Contraindications to the use of the drug
When using Metreleptin, it is possible that antibodies may be produced against the drug, which can provoke serious infectious processes or minimize the effectiveness of the drug itself. In patients with generalized lipodystrophy who have received Metreleptin injections, there have been cases of T-cell lymphoma formation.
Particular caution is recommended when using the drug in patients with hematologic problems because the safety and efficacy of Metreleptin for the correction of complications of partial lipodystrophy, liver diseases such as nonalcoholic steatohepatitis (NASH), is not fully understood.
Nor is Metreleptin prescribed to correct problems in patients with HIV-associated lipodystrophy. In addition, the drug is contraindicated in anyone diagnosed with obesity of any genesis, metabolic disorders without reason to even assume the presence of generalized lipodystrophy.