Some patients with an obesity have a normal level of leptin. The resistance to the hormone has not been identified. So what is the cause of the obesity? The work of the hormone is disrupted, which in this case is associated with a violation of its synthesis. It is connected to a long non-coding RNA. Perhaps this form of obesity can be cured with a help of leptin injections. The article is just about new data that confirms this assumption.
- New scientific data.
- Norm of leptin.
- The meaning of leptin increase or decrease.
- Ways to increase hormone levels and to lose weight.
- Drugs for the leptin regulation.
New scientific data
Leptin plays an important role in the regulation of body weight. The hormone is produced by lipocytes and takes part in balancing the mass of adipose tissue. It reduces its amount. In obesity, the level of leptin often exceeds the norm, which is additionally correlated with leptin resistance. But in 20% of patients with body fat, leptin levels are about the same as in people with normal weight. It can be assumed that such forms of obesity are associated with impaired expression of the gene responsible for the process of fat accumulation.
Recently, the scientists who have discovered leptin a quarter of a century ago, managed to find a long non-coding RNA. It turns out that two enhancers represented by nucleotide sequence regulators enhance gene expression. They are inveterate conservatives. In other words, there are factors that control them. These include: ribonculeoproteins or RNA associated with proteins. This made it possible to analyze the affiliation of the process with leptin. The assumptions were confirmed, so scientists named the RNA as lncOb. Blocking such RNA reduces the level of leptin in 10 times at the level of transcription.
Thus, obesity can be developed in different ways. In particular, disturbances in leptin transcription can minimize the level of the hormone and therefore cause extra weight. This raises hope that leptin therapy can correct obesity, but only in those who do not suffer from hormone tolerance.
Norm of leptin
The level of the hormone in blood correlates with sex and age.
It can be approximately:
|Age||Boys/ Men ng.mol||Girls/Women ng.mol|
|Up to three years||3,5||2,0|
|Up to six years||5,5||1,5|
|Up to nine years||10,0-19,0||6,0-10,0|
|Up to twelve years||20,0-28,0||10,0-15,0|
|Up to fifteen years||26,0-40,0||10,0-18,0|
|Up to twenty years||27,0-37,0||6,0-26,0|
|Older twenty years old||1,0-27,0||0,5 – 13,5|
Hormones reach a maximum level during puberty period. Then the level of leptin stabilizes, small deviations in both sides are not a pathology, but this is a reason for consulting an endocrinologist. The level of leptin is determined by an enzyme immunoassay.
The meaning of leptin increase or decrease
Any imbalance of hormones can lead to negative consequences.
For example, a high level of leptin in the human body provokes:
- release of insulin into the blood;
- activating a metabolism;
- stops the feeling of hunger, allowing you to get satiation in a short time.
Leptin is often called the «bad hormone» because its high concentration in the blood greatly increases the risk of thrombosis. A low level of the hormone increases the risk of obesity, the same as diabetes, reproductive dysfunction.
- activates the immune system;
- stimulates bone mineralization;
- minimizes the level of cholesterol in the bloodstream;
- reduces the risk of allergies.
Ways to increase hormone levels and to lose weight
A hormonal failure occurs because of a decrease in the volume of food entering the body or a complete refusal to eat. It provokes a violation of the production of leptin.
In this case:
- metabolism is inhibited;
- appetite increases, as an uncontrollable feeling of hunger arises;
- fat cells are slowly «burned out».
If you on a diet for a long time, you can provoke stress. In this case, weight loss slows down, and when nutrients enter the body, the brain receives a command to accumulate fat. As a result, instead of losing weight, you will get extra kilos. That is why the effect of diets is temporary. After eating restrictions, you need to restore the hormonal background, and this takes time.
To speed up the process, it is recommended to follow certain rules that increase the level of leptin in the bloodstream:
- fractional nutrition, in portions the size of a palm, gradually reducing this mini-size;
- food should be exceptionally healthy with vitamins and minerals, useful substances;
- it is worth excluding fructose and simple carbohydrates in favor of complex ones;
- at the time of diets limit all physical, sports activities, as they reduce the amount of leptin in the blood.
And here is the main secret: make «free-eating days» when you need to eat fats and carbohydrates. They will help you to cope with restrictions, because it activates the release of leptin into the blood. This should be done no more than a couple of times a week, avoiding overeating.
Drugs for the leptin regulation
There are a variety of substances and drugs that help balance weight and cope with leptin resistance.
- fish oil minimizes resistance and allows the brain to «note» those extra pounds;
- green tea also helps to lose weight, but only in combination with a diet;
- metreleptin in injections is also intended for the relief of leptin deficiency, however, it is necessary to verify the authenticity of the drug in its certification;
- statins, which are involved in the regulation of lipid metabolism, and that are affiliated with leptin;
- there are also drinks that activate the synthesis of leptin: cocoa, coffee, cold and fruit tea.
But all this, except for Metreleptin and statins, are not drugs, but dietary supplements. Drugs capable of controlling obesity are likely to be seen on the shelves of pharmacies soon. Scientists do intense researches of the hormone.